Ciprofloxacin is a synthetic antibacterial agent that is available for oral administration in the form of tablets weighing 250, 500 and 750 mg (Cipro). It is effective in the treatment of infections of the upper and lower respiratory, as well as urinary tract, gastrointestinal tract, skin, soft tissues, as well as osteomyelitis.
The usual adult dose of ciprofloxacin, depending on the severity of a urinary tract infection, varies from 250 to 500 mg every 12 hours. For other infections, 500-750 mg is prescribed every 12 hours. It is not recommended to use more than 1500 mg/day.
A man aged 33 years old took 18.75 g of ciprofloxacin and 25 g of pristinamycin inside. Fibroendoscopy showed ulceration of the stomach, and a renal biopsy showed tubular necrosis. Serum creatinine levels rose on the fourth day; serum concentration of ciprofloxacin was 3 mg / L. After hemodialysis, the patient recovered. After an overdose corresponding to 14 g of ciprofloxacin, acute renal failure was noted.
- – Bioavailability: 70%
- Peak plasma level: 1.6-2.8 μg / ml (after oral administration of 500 mg)
- Time to peak plasma level: 1.0-1.5 h
- Distribution volume: 2.1-3.5 l / kg
- binding to plasma proteins: 16-43%
- Half-life: 3.5-5.0
- It is excreted unchanged: 15-50%
- Active metabolites: 4 derivatives
Pregnancy and lactation
It is not known whether ciprofloxacin crosses the placenta, but it passes into human milk. Quinolones can disrupt the growth of cartilage and pineal glands of long bones, so they are not prescribed for patients under the age of 18 years, as well as for pregnant and lactating women.
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1. Effect on the nervous system. All fluoroquinolones are antagonists of gamma-aminobutyric acid and can cause seizures. The use of ciprofloxacin is fraught with exacerbation of myasthenia gravis. Benign intracranial hypertension was observed.
2. Anaphylactic reactions. Oral administration of ciprofloxacin in patients with the AIDS-associated complex was observed lethal anaphylactic reactions.
3. The effect on the kidneys. The use of ciprofloxacin led to interstitial nephritis and acute renal failure.