Symptoms of sepsis
Symptoms of sepsis largely depend on the causative agent of the disease, the state of health of the organism, the localization of metastases and the course of the pathological process. The onset of the disease is most acute.
The first signs of sepsis (pre sepsis):
- Wavy fever with small periods of apyrexia;
- Increased sweating, chills ;
- Rashes on the skin.
If the immune system can cope with the infection, a developed clinical picture (symptomatology) of the disease usually does not appear.
What is sepsis, and what is not?
Close to the sepsis condition, which is not sepsis:
- Bacteremia – the bacteria and their toxins are in the blood, but there is no strong systemic inflammatory reaction.
- The syndrome of a systemic inflammatory reaction is a more general concept. Indicates the body’s response in the form of a systemic inflammatory process to any damaging effect. Sepsis is one of the varieties of this condition when the role of a factor that has a damaging effect is an infection.
The mandatory components of sepsis :
- Presence of the focus, source of infection, in the body. It is from it that bacteria and their toxins enter the bloodstream.
- Spread of pathogens with blood. They are carried throughout the body.
- The response of the defense system. A generalized (in the whole body) inflammation develops.
The main symptoms of sepsis
- Increased ( up to 38 ° C ) or lower body temperature ( up to 36 ° C );
- Pronounced chills, alternating with heat and sweating;
- The skin acquires a pale gray or yellowish hue;
- Nausea , sometimes vomiting ;
- Rapid weight loss, signs of anorexia;
- “Septic diarrhea”, alternating with constipation ;
- Arterial hypotension (low blood pressure);
- Weak pulse;
- Tachycardia ;
- Dehydration of the body ;
- Headaches ;
- Violations of the functions of the central nervous system – increased excitability, insomnia or drowsiness, retardation, infectious psychoses;
- Rapid formation of pressure sores;
- Respiratory failure;
- Respiratory distress syndrome;
- Hepatomegaly (enlarged liver);
- Disorders from the urinary system – azotemia, oliguria, toxic nephritis ;
- The primary focus of infection slows down in healing, and the granulation tissues around the wound become bleeding, pale, while the bottom of the wound is covered with a dirty-grayish coating with necrotic patches;
- Allocations from the wounds of the primary infection have a fetid odor, seemingly cloudy;
- Hemorrhagic rash or pustules on the skin;
- Herpetic rash on the lips;
- Hemorrhage on mucous membranes or in the conjunctiva.
The development of secondary infections, depending on the localization of subsidence of pathogens, can cause:
- Metastasis to the lungs – purulent pleurisy, pneumonia, lung abscess or its gangrene;
- Metastasis in the kidneys – pyelitis, para nephritis;
- Metastasis in the musculoskeletal system – arthritis, osteomyelitis ;
- Metastasis in the brain – purulent meningitis, cerebral abscess;
- Metastasis in the heart – endocarditis, pericarditis ;
- Metastasis in the liver – hepatitis, liver abscess, etc.
In some cases, the course of sepsis can occur in an atypical (erased) form, when during illness one of its obvious symptoms (for example – elevated body temperature) is absent. One of the main causes of atypical sepsis, as well as other infectious diseases, is the massive use of antibiotics by patients, without consulting a doctor.
Sepsis in newborns – symptoms
- mIncreased capriciousness of the baby;
- Diarrhea (diarrhea) ;
- Dehydration of the body;
- Full refusal of the baby from the breast;
- Rapid weight loss;
- Loss of skin elasticity, xeroderma ;
- Purulent processes in the navel;
- Abscesses and phlegmon.