Medicines

Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus

Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most dangerous varieties of Staphylococcus, it provokes the development of serious diseases. Pathology is diagnosed in adults and infants. In therapy, a comprehensive approach is used that aims to destroy pathogens, prevent the development of severe complications.

Staphylococcus aureus – what is it?

Staphylococcus aureus (Staphylococcus aureus) – gram-positive view bacterial kind of staphylococci, which provokes the appearance of purulent-inflammatory pathologies. Pathogenic microorganisms have a spherical shape, their associations in appearance are similar to a bunch of grapes.

Conditionally pathogenic bacteria staphylococcus aureus are present in every person, live on the mucous membranes of the nose, in the armpits, in the inguinal zone, in the vagina. Pathogenic the form of microorganisms penetrates the body from the outside.

The causes of staphylococcal infection:

  • weakened immunity;
  • contact with the carrier of infection;
  • neglect of personal hygiene rules;
  • the consumption of dirty products, raw water, poorly roasted meat, unboiled milk.

The main difference between Staphylococcus aureus and other species is its resistance to many antibacterial drugs, which greatly complicates the treatment.

Ways of infection

Infect staphylococcus aureus can be in different ways, bacteria these are distinguished by their viability, they are resistant to external factors, they do not die by boiling, alcohol, and disinfectant solutions are not terrible for them.

How can I get Staphylococcus aureus:

  1. Air-droplet path: pathogenic germs are present in saliva, other secretions. With close contact with an infected person, a healthy person inhales the contaminated air, the pathogens penetrate into the upper respiratory tract.
  2. Contact-household: you can not use utensils and personal belongings of an infected person.
  3. Alimentary: pathogenic microorganisms penetrate the body with food.
  4. Artificial: infection occurs in medical institutions. When using poorly sterilized instruments, bacteria immediately enter the bloodstream. This way of infection is considered the most dangerous.

There are certain risk factors that increase the likelihood of infection – metabolic disorders, immunodeficient conditions, advanced age, long-term use of hormonal drugs.

Symptoms of Staphylococcus aureus

Symptoms of infection depend on the location of the bacteria, human immunity. Basic symptoms pathologies – a sharp increase in temperature, a strong intoxication.

Often golden staphylococcus is present in the feces of the baby – the child suffers from severe pain in the abdomen, becomes moody, his appetite worsens, he is underweight in weight.

Lesion of staphylococcus skin

Microbes often affect the umbilical wound in the baby – the umbilical ring swells, there are purulent discharge, extensive hyperemia, there is a thickening of the umbilical vein.

What dermatological pathologies cause staphylococcal infection:

  • defeat sweat glands – on the skin appear dense nodules of red color, which gradually begin to fester;
  • vesiculopustulosis – characterized by a large number of small bubbles that are filled with liquid, they burst, cover with a crust;
  • Ritter’s disease – bubbles are formed, resembling a burn-in appearance, a skin will cover, there are extensive open wounds;
  • abscess – the infection penetrates into the deep layers of the epidermis, the skin turns red, seals appear, ulcers;
  • felon – the infection affects the extreme phalanges of the fingers, the cushion blushes and becomes inflamed, there is a strong pain.

Lesion of eyes and respiratory system

Staphylococcus aureus lives on the mucous membranes, in the presence of provoking factors, it begins to grow actively – ophthalmic diseases develop, the respiratory system suffers.

The main signs of pathologies:

  • with damage to the eyes develops chronic conjunctivitis, a person complains of intolerance to bright light, eyelids swell, pus appears from the eyes;
  • if the growth of bacteria is observed in the nose, there are signs of a strong cold, mucous discharges become abundant, pus contaminants appear in them;
  • when the infection enters the throat, bacterial angina develops, tracheitis with a strong non-productive cough, are increasing The lymph nodes, pus appears on the tonsils;
  • If infection from the throat falls lower, develops bronchitis, pneumonia. Diseases occur against a background of severe fever, dyspnea appears, pain under the ribs.

Other types of staphylococcal infection

Staphylococcus aureus is capable of affecting all internal organs, which distinguishes it from other bacteria.

What diseases develop with Staphylococcus aureus:

  1. With the penetration of pathogenic bacteria into tissues brain develops meningitis and abscess. The disease is accompanied by a strong intoxication, high fever, frequent bouts a headache, coordination is disrupted. Pathology is especially dangerous for pregnant women, it is difficult for children.
  2. The defeat of the urinary tract – in men develops urethritis, among women – cystitis. The main signs are painful urination, frequent urges to emptying bladder, there are pains in the region of the waist, in the urine, there are blood veins.
  3. Arthritis, osteomyelitis- the consequences of the penetration of bacteria into the bone and joint tissues. The disease is accompanied by pain,edema, and reddening of the affected area, decreased mobility.
  4. Sepsis develops with immunodeficiency states – the temperature rises to 40 degrees, the consciousness is disturbed, the arterial indices decrease sharply, a person can fall into a coma.

After eating staphylococcal-infected foods, there are signs of acute enterocolitis – nausea, frequent seizuresvomit, diarrhea, in the feces there are green inclusions.

Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of infertility in men and problems with conception in women.

Diagnostics

To confirm the diagnosis, a number of laboratory tests are performed. For research take blood, smears from the pharynx, nose, of the vagina, from the mucous membranes of the eyes.

Basic diagnostic methods:

  • standard coagulase test – its duration is 4-24 hours;
  • latex agglutination – allows to identify antibodies to Staphylococcus, to determine the strain and the type of pathogenic bacteria;
  • clinical blood test – reveals neutrophilia, leukocytosis, high ESR;
  • clinical analysis of urine;
  • sowing on nutrient media – allows to identify the strain, determine its sensitivity to antibacterial agents;
  • Vidal’s reaction – the analysis is carried out to determine the effectiveness of therapy, monitor the dynamics of the disease, make it every 7-10 days, a titer of 1: 100 and higher indicates an active growth of bacteria;
  • Fagotyping – the analysis is carried out to identify the sensitivity of Staphylococcus to antibacterial agents;
  • sowing feces to identify pathogenic microorganisms – do it no later than three hours after a bowel movement.

Sowing with mucous take in the morning on an empty stomach, before brushing teeth and taking medication. Smear with conjunctivitis is taken from the lower eyelid, with dermatological pathologies, the skin around the abscess is treated with antiseptics, the crusts are removed, and then a smear is taken.

Staphylococcus aureus is present in the body of any person, normally its number should not exceed 10 in 3 degrees, dangerous indicators are considered to be more than 10 in the 6th degree.

To what doctor to address?

The choice of a specialist with the appearance of a staphylococcal infection depends on which organs were affected, how the disease manifests itself. Staphylococcus is treated by a surgeon, dermatologist, ENT, the ophthalmologist. To begin with, you should visit a therapist, pediatrician and infectious disease specialist.

Additionally, an endocrinologist may be required to consult with a suspected development of diabetes mellitus and immunologist, if the cause of the infection lies in immunodeficiency.

How Staphylococcus aureus treats

The basis of therapy is made up of antibiotics, they are prescribed after receiving the results of tests, as the aureus staphylococcus has developed immunity to many drugs. Duration of treatment – from a week to several months, depending on the severity of the pathology.

The main groups of medicines:

  • synthetic penicillins – Cefazolin, Oxacillin;
  • macrolides – Erythromycin, Clarithromycin;
  • antibacterial sprays for the treatment of the throat, nasal mucosa – Miramistin, Bioparox;
  • immunomodulators – Imudon, IRS-19;
  • when skin is affected – Mupirocin;
  • antifungal preparations – Nystatin, Diflucan to prevent dysbacteriosis.

For a gargle of a throat it is possible to use tincture of a calendula, Chlorophyllipt- 20 drops of the drug diluted in 120 ml of water, the procedure is carried out 3 times a day for a week. With conjunctivitis, it is necessary to wash the eyes with a weak solution of potassium permanganate, bury 4-5 times a day with 30%Albucid.

When the organs of the digestive system are damaged, antibacterial drugs are not prescribed, they are used Anatoxinstaphylococcal. Pre-rinse the stomach, do droppers with saline, glucose, and Regidron.

With phlegmon, abscesses, abscesses are surgically opened, after which antibiotic therapy is performed. When sepsis, severe forms of the disease in addition to the main drugs are prescribed Bacteriophagestaphylococcal, plasma, and immunoglobulins.

Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus is most often performed in a hospital – the patient is placed in a separate room, which reduces the chance of bacterial proliferation of other patients. Visits are possible, only visitors should carefully observe the hygiene rules.

During treatment, you should eat blackcurrant berries in any form – they strengthen the protective functions of the body, enhance the action of antibiotics.

Possible complications

Children, people of advanced age, those with weakened immunity suffer a severe staphylococcal infection, they often develop serious complications.

Consequences of Staphylococcus aureus:

  • blood poisoning;
  • meningitis;
  • endocarditis – defeat of the mitral or aortic valve;
  • toxic shock;
  • coma;
  • death.

The prognosis of the disease depends on the degree of severity of the pathology – with mild lesions of the skin and mucous membranes, complications develop rarely.  Massive infection, against which sepsis develops, tissue damage brain for each second patient ends with death. 

Staphylococcus aureus begins to multiply actively in a weakened organism, so immunity should be strengthened, all infectious diseases should be treated in a timely manner, and hygiene rules should be kept in mind. When signs of the disease do not engage in self-treatment and seek help from a specialist.

Visit Also: Sepsis in adults: symptoms and treatment

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